D U R I A N
( Bombaceae sp. )
( Bombaceae sp. )
1. A BRIEF HISTORY
Durian is a fruit of the tree. The name probably derived from the durian is the Malay term of a given word thorn suffix-an, so a durian. This word is primarily used to refer to fruit whose skin is a sharp thorn. Durian plants from forests of Malaysia, Sumatra, and Borneo in the form of wild plants. Westward spread of durian is to Thailand, Burma, India and Pakistan. Durian fruit has been known in Southeast Asia since the 7th century AD Another name durian is duren (Java, Gayo), duriang (Manado), dulian (Toraja), rulen (East Seram).
2. TYPE OF PLANT
Durian crops including cotton tree family Bombaceae-kapukan countrymen. Durian is commonly known plants of the genus (genus) Durio, sia, Lahia, Boschia and Coelostegia. There are dozens of durian which recognized excellence by the Ministry of Agriculture and distributed to the community to be developed. Kinds of durian varieties are: durian breadfruit (Central Java), Petruk (Central Java), sitokong (Betawi), Simas (Bogor), Sunan (Jepara), Otong (Thailand), Kani (Thailand), sidodol (South Kalimantan), sijapang (Betawi) and sihijau (South Kalimantan).
3. BENEFIT PLANT
Benefits of durian than as food and other processed fresh fruit, there are benefits from other parts, namely: Plants as a deterrent erosion in sloping lands. Stalks for building materials / home furnishings. Commensurate with the durian wood wood because the wood tends sengon straight. Seeds that have a high enough starch content, potentially as an alternative to food (can be mixed with fruit pulp). The skin is used as a good scrub ash, with. way up to dry sun-dried and burned to pieces.
4. INVESTMENT CENTER
In Indonesia, there are durian plants across Java and Sumatra. While in Kalimantan and Irian Jaya are generally only found in the woods, along the river. In the world, durian plants spread throughout Southeast Asia, from Sri Lanka, South India to New Guenea. Specifically in Southeast Asia, durian grown in intensive plantations are maintained by the state of Thailand. Total production of durian in the Philippines is 16 700 tonnes (2030 ha), in Malaysia 262 000 tonnes (42,000 ha) in Thailand and 444 500 tonnes (84 700 ha) in 1987-1988. In Indonesia in the same year produced 199 361 tonnes (41 284 ha) and in 1990 produced 275 717 tonnes (45 372 ha).
5. GROWING CONDITIONS
Rainfall for the maximum crop durian 3000-3500 mm / year and a minimum of 1500-3000 mm / year. Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, with drought 1-2 months prior to flowering is better than continuous rain. Light intensity required durian is 60-80%. As a child (newly planted in the garden), durian plants can not stand the sun in the dry season, so the seedlings should be protected / shaded. Durian plants suited to the average temperature of 20 ° C-30 ° C. At 15 ° C durian to grow but the growth is not optimal. When the temperature reached 35 ° C the leaves will burn.
5.2. Planting Media
Durian crop requires fertile soil (soil rich in organic matter). Preparation of the soil particles balance between sand, clay and dust making it easy to form crumbs. Of land suitable for durian is the type of soil and ondosol grumosol. Land that has the characteristics of black and dark gray, topsoil structure bebutir items, while the bottom of the clotted, and the high water binding capacity. The desired degree of acidity of the soil are plant durian (pH) 5-7, with optimum pH 6 to 6.5. Durian plants including perennials with roots in, it takes the water content into the ground with enough, (50-150 cm) and (150-200 cm). If the depth of ground water is too shallow / deep, sweet fruit flavors are not / will plant drought / root rot caused by always flooded.
5.3. Place an altitude
Altitude for durian planting should not exceed 800 m asl. But there is also a suitable plant durian planted in various heights. Hilly land / the slope is less than 15 is less practical than the average flat land.