Jackfruit ( Nangka )


Jackfruit
(Art Carpus Lamk heterophyllus)

1. A BRIEF HISTORY

Jackfruit is a fruit tree crop that originated in India and spread to the tropics, Including Indonesia. In Indonesia, this tree has several regional names such as Nongko / jackfruit (Java, Gorontalo), Langge (Gorontalo), Anane (Ambon), lumasa / malasa (Lampung), nanal or krour (Irian Jaya), jackfruit (Sunda). Some foreign names are: jackfruit, jack (UK), jackfruit (Malaysia), kapiak (Papua New Guinea), liangka (Philippines), peignai (Myanmar), khnaor (Cambodia), mimiz, miiz hnang (laos), khanun (Thailand ), mit (Vietnam).

2. TYPES OF PLANTS

In Indonesia, more than 30 cultivars in Java, there are more than 20 cultivars. Based on the figure and size of the jackfruit tree is divided into two groups, namely the jackfruit tree fruit and mini fruit jackfruit tree.

1) Large fruit Jackfruit: reaching 20-30 m tall; stem diameter at 80 cm and age from about 5-10 years to bear fruit.
2) small fruit Jackfruit: reaching 6-9 m tall; Reaches 15-25 cm stem diameter and age Began to bear fruit about 18-24 months.

Under conditions of jackfruit pulp can be divided into three types, namely:

Jackfruit pulp: pulp thin, somewhat fibrous, soft, flavorful hard easily separated from the fruit.
Jackfruit barked: flesh thick, slightly dry aroma is less harsh. (Jackfruit and jackfruit boar bones)
Jackfruit Camped: flesh thin, pliant and aromatic specific. Superior jackfruit varieties grown in Indonesia, namely: jackfruit billing / boar jackfruit, jackfruit Camped, jack tray, thick jackfruit, jackfruit turmeric, red jackfruit, jackfruit bark, mini jackfruit and jackfruit misin.

3. BENEFIT PLANT

Young jackfruit pulp (towel) used as vegetable food.
Jackfruit seed flour is used as raw material for the food industry (food ingredients mixed).
Young leaves can be used as animal feed.
Jackfruit wood is Considered superior to teak for furniture manufacturing, construction lathe, mast, mast horses and stables for cattle (in Priangan), paddles, tools, and musical instruments.
Jackfruit tree can be used as traditional medicine.

4. PLANTING CENTER

Fruit is even considered as the main staple food during food shortages. In Southeast Asia, jackfruit is mainly kept in the yard and orchard fruit mix: in the 1980's some extensive fruit orchard planted jackfruit as intercropping plants with Jackfruit. Because the fruit is easy to rot, do not export trade to Australia, Europe and so on from canning factories in Malaysia.

5. GROWING CONDITIONS

5.1. Climate

Wind plays a role in helping pollinate flowers on the plant jackfruit.
Jackfruit trees suitable to grow in areas that have the average annual rainfall of 1500-2500 mm and the dry season are not too hard. Jackfruit can be grown in dry areas are in areas that have dry months over 4 months
Sunlight is needed to spur jackfruit photosynthesis and growth, because trees are intolerant. Lack of sunlight can lead to disruption of the formation of flowers and fruit and growth.
The average minimum temperatures of 16-21 degrees C and Maximum Temperatures from 31 to 31.5 degrees Celsius
High humidity Necessary to reduce evaporation.

5.2. Growing Media

Jackfruit trees are maintained in different types of soil, but more pleasure from alluvial, sandy clay / clay argillaceous deep and well irrigated.
Generally, the preferred soil is loose and sandy soil. This tree lives on barren land to fertile soil with acidic reaction conditions to alkalis. Even in the peat soil was this tree can grow and produce fruit.
Jackfruit trees are resistant to low pH (acid soil) with a pH of 6.0 to 7.5, but the optimum pH of 6-7.
Water depth of suitable soil for the growth of jackfruit is 1-2 m or between 1-2.5 m. Because the roots are very deep, it should be planted in the soil top layer thick enough (about 1 m).

5.3. The Altitude

Jackfruit tree can grow from start lowlands to 1300 m altitude. But the best altitude for growing jackfruit is between 0-800 m above sea level.

6. Cultivation guidelines

6.1. Nurseries

1) Requirements for Seed

Generally jackfruit plant propagation is done by using the seeds, because multiplication with graft or grafting only a small percentage will be. This may be due to latex content that may inhibit the process of unity. Selection made since the time when you want to get jackfruit seedlings that are superior (rapid Fruition, Able to produce a lot of fruit quality and resistance to Pests and diseases). Some things to consider in choosing a good seed are:

Seed should come from superior types or varieties (high production, good quality fruit, long-lived and resistant to Pests and diseases).
Seedlings should be healthy roommates can be seen from the figure the solid, strong stems, and grows straight upright, branching many and the upper leaves of fresh green and shiny.

2) Preparation of Seeds

Treatment includes washing the seeds carefully to remove the skin and discard seeds slimy pericarp part in the form of horns; treatment will improve germination. Seeds sown while still fresh, and if Necessary short-term storage, the seed should not be allowed to dry out. The seed, roommates owns 40% of the original water content and stored in a watertight plastic container, with Temperatures of 20 degrees C is still able to germinate for 3 months. Under conditions of adequate germination can be initiated after 10 days and germination percentage of 80-100% within a period of 35-40 days after sowing. Seeds should be placed horizontally or hilumnya face down for germination. How jackfruit tree breeding by grafting requires special skills and experience and Becomes a low percentage. Advantages include faster fruitful and Mother Nature can diturunkan.Tanaman used as the base of the seedling is jackfruit / Cempedak the origin of the seeds.

How okulasinya are as follows:

Cut a wooden eye (eye entraps) from jackfruit trunk, with skin approximately 2 cm above to 2 cm below the eye. Carried Wood disposed of carefully to the eye growing point is not damaged.
Cut the base of the tree bark, about 10-20 cm above the root collar with a width of 2-3 cm and 3-4 cm in length. Ungkitlah of wood and kukit tongue was cut in half. Put your eye to the base of the tongue under the bark of trees, in such a way, the eye is still visible above the bark tongue cut out. Then tie with raffia and eyes still sticking out (not to be crushed).
At the successful grafting, after 8-14 days raffia rope should be discarded. When the shoots are growing throughout 1-10 cm, tie shoots at the top of the tree, so that shoots grow straight and not damaged because the wind rocked. Materials for graft taken from young branches / twigs had been in the tree branches / twigs new buds are buds on a branch or twig that has not been productive. Implants done before the rainy season so that the roots can grow well. However, an implant done in the dry season, but should be watered regularly.
How grafting done by peeling skin around 3-5 cm in width. Wounds that have been created are allowed to dry in contact with winds 1-2 days. Then the upper wound hormone Root oiled one F, and then covered with soil or humus berkompos that has been moistened and covered with coconut fiber or plastic roommates has been given little holes.

3) Seed Seeding Technique

Seeds sown / planted into plastic bags roommates are available in a deep bed of thick seed, after it closed down a thin layer of soil. Seeds will germinate with an average germination rate and percent to ± 90% of plants. Dipotkan young seedlings at the latest after the leafy four strands, as older seedlings difficult to transplanting (transplanting). This difficulty can be overcome by 1-2 sow seeds directly into the container. Most suitable seedlings kept in the shade (50-70% intensity of full sunlight).

4) Maintenance Nurseries / Seeding

For seedlings from seeds, watering is done regularly every morning. Seedbed should be a shade that is not too tight and facing eastwards in order to prevent too rapid evaporation of water. Of grafted seedlings, watering can is done every day Regularly to Prevent dryness. Watering is done when there is no rain. Seedling of grafts should be removed when a new shade that does not Wither.

5) Transfer of Seeds

Seedlings to be transported to the field plantings should be watered first. Transportation to field planting seeds in the morning or afternoon and be done with caution. Demolition of seedlings in the field is done carefully as in the transport. If the transport distance far enough seeds, the seeds of roommates had been demolished Earlier admitted some days before planting. These seeds (from seed) can be planted in the ground when she was young once, before the roots grow out of the pot, the roots can cause disruption to the deadly seed. Seedlings should have a size 50-75 cm tall and aged 1-1 1/2 months. Of grafted seedlings can be planted in the field at the age of 6-8 months. If the length of shoots had reached 2-30 cm, cut the top of the base of the tree and the wound closed paraffin. For grafting should be done during clear weather and no rain. Seeds of grafts, usually after 1 to 2.5 months, many rooted cuttings and grafts can be taken. Once weaned a few days, grafts can be planted in the field.

6.2. Media Processing Plant

1) Preparation

Before planting activities undertaken, to do site inspection and determined based on the results of field boundaries areal.Faktor factors that affect the growth of crops such as jackfruit weeds, standing water, soil structure and texture patterns should be addressed / controlled. For that act of cleaning the field in total, setting drainage and tillage, especially in the planting hole to be made.

2) Establishment of beds

Some of the provisions that need to be considered in making nursery beds as follows:

Size beds vary but are typically used between 5 x1 x 1 m and 10 m.
Seedbed arcing north to south direction and edges reinforced with bamboo, bricks, or wood and elevated surface 10-15 cm of the soil surface.
Between beds is 0:45 m and 5-10 m beds made every road checks around 60-100 m.
Drains made along the left and right hearing.
Seedbed given shade with palm roofs or slalom. Section facing east is higher than that facing the West.
In a prepared seedbed plastic bags that have been filled with growing medium and have been given small holes in the bottom. The media used to grow soil mix topsoil, organic fertilizer, and fine sand in the ratio 2:1:1. Plastic bags used size 20 x 30 cm with a thickness of 0:08 mm and black.
3) Liming

If the soil pH is too acidic or alkaline it is Necessary to do some effort to the make jackfruit can grow and provide optimal results. If too acidic (pH <5) lime can be added, if it is too alkaline (pH> 7) can be added sulfur. The dose depends on the condition of the land, but as a guideline of 1 kg of lime or sulfur to 1 m 3 planting hole.

4) Fertilization

In the planting hole, soil excavation results manure mixed with 20 kg / pit and dolomite, 0.5 kg / hole (to raise pH). Soil mixture is inserted into the whole 2-3 weeks before planting. A week before planting grant NPK fertilizer (15-15-15) 100 grams into the planting hole.

6.3. Planting Techniques

1) Determination of Cropping Pattern

Pattern-yard effort in the land is planting around the house. This result is not merely to sell but mostly for their own consumption. While the pattern of the planting gardens in a much wider area of ​​the yard with a consideration of the results to meet their market requirements, capital and labor reasonably available and in accordance with the requirements of the land where grown jackfruit. Business pattern can be shaped garden plants gardens garden pure and mixed crops. In gardens planted purely plant one crop that is entirely planted jackfruit. While in the garden mix, mixed jackfruit tree pineapple, papaya, and so on. Jackfruit trees are maintained in the orchard planted within 8-12 m, in a square or hexagon pattern: a general density was 100-120 stems / ha. Cropping distance between the planting hole 12 x 12 m or 4 x 6 m. 2) Preparation and Planting hole made Planting hole size of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m or 1 x 1 x 0.5 m. At the time of excavation pits, upper soil is separated from the lower ground. Upper soil mixed with manure that has been cooked up to 20 kg per hole. The hole has been excavated soil is left open for 1-2 weeks, in order to get sunlight so well oxidized. To avoid acid soil constraints, dugouts mixed with dolomite / agricultural lime as much as 0.5 to 1 kg per planting hole and soil mixture is inserted into the whole 2-3 weeks before planting. For Soils that are too heavy, besides tilling sand may be added as much as 0.5 cans per hole. A week before planting grant NPK (15-15 - 15) 100 grams into the planting hole if Necessary. Seed yield or grafting seedlings planted upright and firm in the middle of the planting hole. The distance between the planting whole 12 x 12 meters and 4 x 6 meters

3) How Planting

Planting late afternoon or early morning at the beginning of the rainy season when rainfall is fairly evenly. Seedlings planted in the holes that are already available, perpendicular. Before the seed is planted, plastic bags must be removed. If planting is done outside of the rainy season or due to climatic abnormalities, namely the rainy season turned into dry again suddenly, the seeds that have been planted have to be watered regularly.

4) Making Holes in Mulch

Mulching around the jackfruit tree is very necessary, especially during the dry season to improve soil moisture. However, during the rainy season because the mulch is not Necessary to bring fungal attack. Mulch can also be incorporated into the soil as fertilizer organizational; administration of two times per year greatly helped the growth of plants. Compound fertilizer plant made in Malaysia with a dose of 2-3 kg per tree.

6.4. Plant Maintenance

1) Spacing and Stitching

Stitching plants were carried out in the rain still falling in the first year and second year.

2) Weeding

Weeding or free plants from weeds or plant bully attack is done by clearing weeds manually / chemical properties of jackfruit plant with a radius of 1-2 m. Weed control using herbicides such as Chemically Parasol 1.5 liters in 600 liters of water per hectare or Roundup 2-3 liters in 800 liters of water / ha. The first weeding is done 1-2 months after planting, and then every 2-4 months were Carried out for 2-3 years. Weeding is done by hand or chemically.

3) Fertilization

Organic fertilizers such as manure or compost fertilizer 1-2 times a year as much as 20 kg per plant. Inorganic fertilizer made one week after planting at a dose of 100 g NPK per plant. Fertilization second at the age of 6 months at a dose of 150 g NPK per plant. The third fertilization performed on the plant life of 12 months at a dose of 200 grams per plant. Fertilization fourth at the age of 18 months at a dose of 250 grams per plant and fifth fertilization performed on the plant life of 24 months at a dose of 300 grams per plant. Furthermore, for plants that are not flowering in the fertile soil of organic fertilizer can be added to 650 grams / tree.

Rise to additional fertilizer plants need leaves to stimulate the formation of leaves. Leaf fertilizer made after 2 weeks until the plants age of 17 months. Type of foliar fertilizer used Gandasil D / Bayfolan.

4) Irrigation and Watering

Jackfruit plants require good drainage. Irrigation is needed to increase of productivity. Jackfruit plants have roots in, does not require flooding during the dry season due to lack of tolerant plant jackfruit puddle. Its roots are Able to absorb water in the soil. Provision of additional water required during the first two years of growth.

5) Other Maintenance

Prune the plant parts that are not fertile and productive. Pruning branches conducted on jackfruit tree so lush entitled unobstructed sunlight to stimulate flowering. Pruning is limited to shoot thinning when trees Began to be planted and little cutting branches containing fruit to make it Easier to reach the fruit wrapped and then harvested. Pruning branches intended to regulate conception, because the female flowers appear on the main trunk or primary branches. Stimulation of flowering is done by wounding, drill / tie rod. Purpose of treatment to inhibit the assimilation proceeds in order not meyebar leaves to all parts of the plant, but to stimulate flowering. In order jackfruit and the results are good, do fruit thinning. The fruit that started growing them in a bag / paper that has dicelupakan cement into the insecticide solution. Can also be wrapped with woven leaves, for example using palm leaves or coconut matting. This action can deterministic rats or bats attack, and compelling to Repel ants and other insects in order to OBTAIN Whose fruit skin is smooth and bright.

7. Pests and diseases

7.1. Pest

Caterpillars are daphnia causals shoot borers, creating a tunnel through the buds, young shoots, and fruit. Cutting the affected Deciding leaves for caterpillars life will become pupa in the tunnel; fruit wrapped or covered with sprayed insecticide Théoden 35 EC. Fueling bark; such as caterpillars and Backer rufomaculata Indarbela tetraonis eradicated with their funk holes / sprayed with a systemic insecticide containing the active ingredient Charbroil (Sevin 85 S). Snout beetles (Weevil) attacking brown buds, Ochyromera artocarpi, a typical pest jackfruit. Tempayaknya (grubs) into the bud and fruit is still soft, the adults feed on the leaves. Parts of plants attacked destroyed and required insecticide. Menyeruaknya winged beetle membranes (Spittle bug), Cosmoscarata relate, eating young leaves. Nymphs live together in a mass of foam roommates is secreted by them; nymphs collected and destroyed. The larvae of the fruit fly are Daces dorsal and D. Often cumbrous attacks the fruit. To avoid attacks, jackfruit should be wrapped; fruits are ripe or overripe bergeletakkan not be allowed on the ground, but should be buried in the grave, and spraying the temple to do. Other Pests are an assortment of sucking insects, such as flea's flour, aphids, white flies, and 'trips', also caterpillar's adhesive leaves (leaf Webber). Jackfruit other Pests are beetles Heliopolis (Mirada, Hemisphere). Ladybug nymphs and adults suck the fluid young plant parts (leaves and fruit). Egg size 1.5 m, laid out in a way stuck into the plant tissue. The Incubation period is 5-7 days. Nymph and adult ladybugs varies color, green or yellow-black and orange-yellow. Experiencing 5 times during instar. Ladybug adults ranged from 6.5 to 7.5 mm in length with the ability to lay up to 18 eggs. Several natural enemies such as the form of the parasite are Euphoric Heliopolis, Heliopolis Erythmelus and as predators are Sycuans leucomesus, Isyndrus sp. and Cosmolestes pities. To control the population is controlled by natural enemies usually when high Populations do with insecticides such Lunate 25 WP, Atabron 50EC.

7.2. Disease

Bacteria die flunky (Erwinia carotovora) are attacking jackfruit tree, also Cempedak. Mushrooms were first attacked the shoots and down next to the header. Violent attacks kill the tree. In India Reportedly attack root rot and stem rot by Rhizopus fungi that cause loss artocarpi plants up to 15-30%. This fungus is generally subjugating flower buds. Some diseases are quite important between Colletotrichum lagenarium, artocarpina Phomopsis, Septoria artocarpi and Corticium salmon color. Mushrooms are mostly strike during the rainy season. Cutting the plants are attacked will also built a lot of the attacks, in addition field sanitation and fertilization can improve plant health.

8. HARVEST

8.1. Characteristics and Harvest

Fruit maturity is determined by the following criteria:

If the fruit is pounded with objects (egg knife back) will sound loud.
Changes in fruit color from pale green to yellow-green or brown.
Removing the characteristic odor or smells good.
Soft start and distance prickly thorn with a thorn of the other more broadly
Looks like fruit leather will break.

8.2. How to Harvest

How plucking ripe jackfruit is cut with a sharp knife handles and jackfruit was lowered carefully. Large jackfruit tree that bears fruit at the age of 5-10 years, while mini jack at the age of 1.5 to 2 years. In general, ripe fruit after 8 months since the flowers appear.

8.3. Harvest Period

Age 20-30 years maximum fruit production, since it has to be rejuvenated. Results of fruit per year per tree vary generally range 8-12 fruits / tree / year.

9. Postharvest

9.1. Collection

Jackfruit collected by the contractor or taken directly to the market and sold to retailers or cleaved and released one at a time to be sold directly to consumers.

9.2. Storage

Often jackfruit pulp is extracted, cleaned, and sold in a state of fresh extracts. If the supply is abundant, preserved jackfruit, how is this: fruit pulp separated from seeds, then washed, flattened, and dried added sugar or syrup, or without being given anything? Processed is sold as a dry cake. In peninsular Malaysia were canning.

9.3. Other Handling

Meat used to scent jackfruit ice cream and drinks / used honey jackfruit, concentrates, or flour and used in the manufacture of beverages. Jackfruit seeds can be made into jackfruit seed flour mixed one in the whole wheat flour for bread making. Use of jackfruit seed flour as a partial substitution of wheat flour in making cookies and BMC (Mixed Groceries).

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